Together with S. A. Lebedev was a founder of domestic ADP equipment. If S. A. Lebedev was a father of domestic meynfrem, then we are obliged to Issak Brook by creation of low-computers.
As B. N. Malinovsky writes, "similarity of biographies of these two remarkable scientists is amazing. Both were born in one year, studied at one institute, "became independent" as scientists in one scientific organization, both dealt with power issues, from it went to ADP equipment, both became heads of the leading schools of sciences in the field of digital computers".
I. S. Brook was born on November 8, 1902 in Minsk in a poor family of the worker of tobacco factory. In 1920 graduated from real school, and in 1925 it graduated from electrotechnical faculty of MGTU of N.E. Bauman. Still was engaged in the student I. S. Brook in scientific researches. Its diploma was devoted to new methods of regulation of asynchronous engines. "Capabilities and interest in equipment it
inherited from the father — the sister, Myrrha Semenovna Brook remembers him. — Studying in the Minsk real school he especially was fond of the exact sciences — mathematics, physics, equipment. In educational laboratories it was given sometimes the fulfilled old devices. At Energiya plant where Isaak, masters, a type exclusive inquisitiveness of the boy to equipment began to come, explained him the device of machines and machines, gave some old parts. Upon termination of MGTU he was invited to work in All-Union electrotechnical institute of V. I. Lenin where he participated in creation of a new series of asynchronous engines and was engaged in a solution of problems of parallel operation of electric generators.
In 1930 Brook moved to Kharkiv where at one of plants under its manual several electrical machines of new construction, including explosion-proof asynchronous engines were developed and constructed.
In 1935 I. S. Brook returned to Moscow and was sent to Power institute of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (ENIN). Here he organized laboratory of electrical systems and unrolled researches on calculation of the modes of powerful power supply systems. For modeling of such systems he created an estimated table of alternating current – the analog computer. For these works in May, 1936 the academic degree of Candidate of Technical Sciences without defense of a thesis was appropriated to I. S. Brook, and in October, 1936 he defended the doctoral dissertation on the subject "Longitudinal Compensation of Transmission Lines". After completion of work on the differential analyzer Brook was elected the corresponding member of Academy of Sciences.
In 1938 Mr. Brook was engaged in creation of the mechanical differential analyzer for a solution of systems of differential equations to the 6th order inclusive. The analyzer occupied the space of 60 sq.m, and only one cogwheels in it there were more than one thousand.
In 1939 at one of meetings of Presidium of Academy of Sciences of the USSR I. S. Brook gave the report about created under its manual mechanical the analyzer for a solution of differential equations to the 6th order, after that he is elected 1939 the corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
In days of the Great Patriotic War, continuing researches in the field of power industry, I. S. Brook successfully worked on management systems zenith fire, invented the synchronizer of an aviation gun which shot via the rotating airplane propeller.
In 1947 I. S. Brook was elected the full member of Academy of artillery sciences. Solving problems in the field of power industry by means of analog ADP equipment, I. S. Brook came to a conclusion about need of creation of electronic digital
computers (ETsVM) for receipt of necessary accuracy of calculations. The beginning of work of I. S. Brook on digital computers belongs to 1948. It is interesting to note, as S. A. Lebedev, and I. S. Brook send to development of digital machines, having
experience of a solution of tasks from the field of power industry on analog computers. In 1948 I. S. Brook together with B. I. Rameev made the report on the principles of operation of the binary computer with the stored program.
The USSR's first copyright certificate on the invention of a digital computer addressed to I. S. Brook and B. I. Rameev is dated December, 1948.
But, alas, this project remained unrealized.
In 1949 Rameev was called up for military service. Brook lost the only contractor. The made project of a digital electronic computer and remained on paper. Nevertheless ambitious emotional nature of Brook, certainly, was warmed up by data on the beginning of works on creation of a computer in ITM and VT of Academy of Sciences of the USSR which were unrolled with receipt to M. A. Lavrentyev's institute, and then S. A. Lebedev, and
in SKB-245 where Rameev appeared. In January, 1950 I. S. Brook appealed to a human resources department of the Moscow power institute to direct to it the capable young specialists graduating from radio engineering faculty. In March, 1950 department
frames of MEI sent to it to laboratory of Nikolay Yakovlevich Matiukhin who gained an honors degree for brilliant study and participation in scientific researches on a student's bench, but did not pass the personnel commission at receipt in postgraduate study.
In 1950-1952 under the leadership of I. S. Brook the small-size electronic automatic digital machine "M-1" was developed. In the summer of 1951, approximately along with machine MESM, also the machine M-1, and at the beginning of 1952 it started working
it was brought into trial operation. And only nine employees of laboratory who did not have were engaged in its creation
academic degrees (except for I. S. Brook). If to provide conditions in which they worked then it can be evaluated as a remarkable creative rush of young collective. At the M-1 developers the report "Automatic remained
the M-1 computer ″, approved as the director of Power institute of Academy of Sciences of the USSR academician G. M. Krzhizhanovsky on December 15, 1951".
From M. A. Kartsev's memoirs: "At the beginning of 1950 among the property brought from a trophy warehouse the strange part was found (I cannot precisely tell who made this find, maybe, by Brook, maybe, Matiukhin, maybe,
Rameev who worked for us earlier). Long nobody could understand its assignments and origins, did not think yet that it is the miniature kuproksny rectifier. This part was appreciated, and M-1 became first-ever
Computer in which all logic diagrams were made on semiconductors."
In April, 1952 Brook's laboratory started creation of more perfect digital M-2 computer. The group of developers was headed by M. A. Kartsev. M-2 had a three-address instruction set, a format 34 bits,
representation of floating-point numbers and the fixed point, memory on the beam deflection tubes (BDT) with a capacity of 512 numbers and an add-in memory on a magnetic drum with a capacity of 512 numbers. Performance of M-2 made in
average of 2 thousand op / sec. In memory of M-2 normal oscillographic ELT, and in logic diagrams semiconductor diodes — were applied that considerably reduced number of electron tubes, the power consumption and cost. Experience of creation
the diode logic diagrams applied in M-2 formed further a basis for a diode transistor logic — circuit designers of the computer element base of the second generation. In the summer of 1953. M-2 was put into operation. The machine M-2, generally speaking, remained in the single copy, it was tried to be repeated in China, but data on what she earned there, at us was not. But it was the machine serious. On it very big and very important calculations were conducted. As a matter of fact, within several years in the Soviet Union there were two working machines: M-2 and machine high-speed electronic computer of Institute of exact mechanics and ADP equipment of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Big calculations were conducted by Sergey Lvovich Sobolev for Kurchatov. Tasks for Axel Ivanovich Berg's firm were considered.
Further under the leadership of I. S. Brook small digital computers "M-2", "M-3", "M-4", etc. were created. Understanding that the solution of a number of tasks does not require high performance,
I. S. Brook in 1955-1956 developed and economically proved the concept of small computers, having entered the term "small-size machine".
In 1956 I. S. Brook made the report on sessions of Academy of Sciences of the USSR on automation in which he stated principal directions of industrial use of computing and managing machines, and in 1957 set the task of development of the theory, the principles of creation and use of electronic managing machines. For its solution in 1958 the Institute of electronic managing machines of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (INEUM) was created. I. S. Brook became the director of institute.
I. S. Brook in the second half of the 1950th years came to a conclusion that along with application of a computer for scientific computations and object management, it is necessary to develop other scope of a computer – processing of economic information for problems of accounting,
statistics, planning, modeling of economy. Having got acquainted with methods of linear programming of L. V. Kantorovich, classical dynamic models of economy and methods of cross-industry balances of V. Leontyev, I. S. Brook unrolled in INEUM of work on application of mathematical methods and ADP equipment for a solution of economic tasks at the state level.
The development of M-3 which is carried out jointly by Laboratory of managing machines and systems of Academy of Sciences of the USSR and VNIIEM in 1956-57 was the first solution of the task of creation of small computers set by I. S. Brook. M-3 worked with 30-bit binary numbers with the fixed point, had a two-address format of commands, memory with a capacity of 2048 numbers on a magnetic drum and performance 30 op / sec. During the work with ferrite memory of the same capacity performance of M-3 increased up to 1,5 thousand op / sec. It had only 770 electron tubes and 3tys.kuproksnykh diodes and occupied the space of 3 sq.m. The main ideas of creation of M-3 were formulated by I. S. Brook, N. Ya. Matiukhin and V. V. Belynsky. M-3 was intended for design and research institutes and after its acceptance in 1957 by the State commission under the chairmanship of the academician N. G. Bruyevich was produced in lots at plant of S. Ordzhonikidze in Minsk. Prior to serial release three organizations in cooperation on equal footing made M-3 samples for themselves: CB of the academician S.P.Korolev, VNIIEM (academician A. G. Iosifyan) and Institute of mathematics of AN Armenian the USSR (academician S. N. Mergelyan) from which the Yerevan institute of mathematical machines was selected later. Thus, M-3 served as a prototype for two computers industrial series — "Minsk" and "Hrazdan". In the appeared later Minsk-2, Minsk-3 and other machines which were issued in Belarus and Armenia genes of M-1 and M-3 were noticeable. The school of managing machines VNIIEM also had the progenitress M-3 that was repeatedly noted by participants of its development B. M. Kagan, V. M. Dolkart.
In traditions of school of small computers of I. S. Brook development of the machine "Xietun" produced in lots by the computer Kazan plant was executed. The author of the machine "Xietun" N.P.Brusentsov cooperated with I. S. Brook during creation of M-2 and developed engineering approaches to designing of small computers which were inherent to I. S. Brook's school. The machine "Xietun" is interesting that it was based on ternary numeration system. Also experience of programming of tasks by the machine "Xietun" which gave an idea of approaches to structured programming and a dialogue operating mode is interesting.
In INEUM the Academy of Sciences of the USSR under the leadership of Brook created managing machines: M-4 (1957—1960) for a solution of special tasks in systems of Radio engineering institute of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (the chief designer — M. A. Kartsev); M-5 (1959—1960) — for a solution of economic tasks, planning and management of a national economy (the chief designer — V. V. Belyn-sky); M-7-200 and M-7-800 (1966—1969) — for problems of control of powerful power units (Konakovsky state district power station, Slavic state district power station) and technology processes (the chief designer — N. N. Lenov).
Being the director of institute, I. S. Brook paid much attention to needs of the growing institute, creation of healthy operable collective, education of high scientific insistence at the pupils. Having retired in 1964, Isaak Semenovich remained the scientific consultant and the head of scientific and technical council of INEUM. I.S. Brook was a person outstanding and very peculiar. On style of the activity it was more likely the loner scientist, the idea man who picked up and his pupils and colleagues implemented. And it switched the creative energy and talent to something new. To itself and the scientific achievements was not able to do advertizing therefore the direction on development of small computers sounded, perhaps, not so loudly as achievements of creators of superproductive machines of the first and second generation.
For merits in the field of domestic science and equipment I. S. Brook was awarded by four awards of the Labour Red Banner and medals of the USSR.
It published more than 100 scientific works. The scientist of wide erudition, the talented inventor and the experimenter, he received more than 50 copyright certificates on the inventions, from them 16 – for the last five years of life, being already in old age.
Isaak Brook died on October 6, 1974, in three months after S. A. Lebedev's death, is buried in Moscow on the Vvedensky cemetery.
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