As one of candidate solutions of these tasks is used idea of creation of substations with rechargeable batteries of large volume near consumers. One of solutions which is planned to commissioning in 2016 in Germany is presented in this article.
It is a little history
Development of similar projects began in the 1980th years. At that time the Western Berlin had absolutely autonomous system of power supply and for support of frequency Batterie-Speicherkraftwerk Berlin-Steglitz, in transfer — "power plant on batteries" was constructed in 1986. This station was closed in 1994, after consolidation of power supply systems.
The station had the following characteristics:
|Peak capacity||17 MW|
|Issue of peak capacity||20 min.|
|The maximum stored energy||14,4 MWh|
The station consisted of 7080 lead accumulators in 12 parallel branches on the 590th the accumulator in everyone.
The existing technologies
For today in large quantities in the market for similar solutions are used or the acid accumulators mentioned above, or lithium - ion. From the last it is possible to remember such solutions in Germany:
- To Schwerin Samsung installed the battery of accumulators on 5 MWh with a peak capacity of 5 MW. The battery consists of 25600 accumulators with chemical composition lithium-oxide-manganese. The declared term of operation of 20 years 
- In Dresden the battery of accumulators from LG Chem with characteristics of 2 MW / 2,7 MWH was installed. JH2 batteries. Unfortunately marketing here too prevailed and LG nakhyvat these batteries polymeric though they the most normal lithium - ion in not the tough body (pouch bag cells). The declared term of operation of 10 years 
- In Feldkhaym the largest in Europe was accepted in operation (10 MW peak, 6,5 MWh of energy) adjusting power plant. It is executed of 3360 modules, proizvezhenny LG Chem 
But as well as in any technology there are always shortcomings. For all heat-sink technologies fairly following: or we receive the big power and small volume of the stored energy, or on the contrary. It is fair both when comparing different technologies, and in the middle of one group identical by the chemical principle (though here the difference is often not so big). Price policy and costs for operation is also important.
Therefore arose and ideas on a combination of different types of accumulators continue to arise. For example, in Braderup hybrid installation from lithium-ion cells (power 2 MBT, sberegayemy energy of 2 MWH) and the vanadic oxidation-reduction battery was put into operation (Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batteriespeicher, 330 kW and 1 MWh). The lities-ion battery is created by Sony, vanadic — Vanadis Power, the project and management system — Bosch .
Article purpose — to describe one of such hybrid projects, namely a combination of lities - ion and acid accumulators.
Motivation of the project
For permanent units the weight and volume not the most important factor therefore here the benefit of lities - ion accumulators does not play a large role. At the same time currents which it is possible to load and discharge these accumulators above, than applicable for lead-acid, similar on capacity. The main shortcoming — the cost of installation and operational costs.
Here it is important to remember that it is about power where it is not about 5-6 years, and about 10 and above, up to 30 years for networks of medium voltage (where similar installations and are used for today). In that case benefit of a lithium-ion cell is leveled by the fact of cheaper (though more frequent) service of lead accumulators. I will note that service, not replacement. Actually in such systems the lead accumulator without replacement works till 9 years at least in extremely adverse conditions (low temperatures in the Alps) that is already comparable to service life of lithium-ion cells.
Therefore the decision to implement hybrid installation for a covering both unplanned jumps, and planned for smoothing of the diagram of consumption was made.
Characteristics of installation are concluded in its name — M5BAT. It is planned that peak capacity will make 5 MW, the maximum quantity of the stored energy — 5 MWh. Also digit 5 is used for reduction of the following name: Modularer multi-Megawatt multi-Technologie Mittelspannungsbatteriespeicher — Modular multimegawatt accumulator storage system of energy of medium voltage with use of several technologies (the English option is also good in respect of five M in a row — Modular Multimegawatt, Multitechnology Medium-Voltage Battery Storage System).
The technical purpose — to develop approach to creation of building block systems.
Here too I will make small retreat reminder. The quicker the battery is discharged, the less energy can be received from it. It is fair for all types of chemical accumulators. On the Internet there is a mass of the drawings showing this dependence. It is given odiz from them below:
The second, not less important purpose, economic — to create optimum system, lithium - ion, but not conceding by efficiency in real work in an electric network is cheaper purely.
The used components
The Beta-motion company acted as the vendor. The company acts as the developer of systems, but not the vendor. Unfortunately, it was not succeeded to find reliable information about type of cells, except information on use of a ceramic separator.
The following models of production Exide were used:
|Name||16 OCSM 2320 LA||602 1960C Solar|
|Technology||CSM (Copper Stretch Metal)||VRLA gel|
|Number of cycles||N of.||2400|
|Operation term||20 years||N of.|
|Rated capacity, 1 piece||4180 Vtch||3670 Vtch|
More total characteristics can be found here: 16 OCSM 2320 LA and 602 1960C Solar.
At the left 16 OCSM 2320 LA, on the right 602 1960C Solar
Vendor of SMA, two 630 kVA inverters everyone. They were developed with ampler opportunities what standard. But the main characteristics in general should not will change. As to check this information it was not obtained, I give detailed data on standard models according to the link.
Further future of the project
After commisioning work for a year is planned. Work in a power market will be carried out as working off of technical part, in particular reliability and the general capability of work in the required mode for smoothings of peaks, and. On the basis of researches the decision on future of the project will be made.
On the basis of the project approach to building block system for use in electric networks will be developed.
Participants of the project
Institute for Power Generation and Storage Systems RWTH Aachen University — Institute of electrogeneration and accumulative systems of RWTH Aachen University.
Institut für Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen — Institute of electrical systems and power of RWTH Aachen University.
E.On — one of the largest operators of backbone networks in the EU.
Exide Technologies — the vendor of VRLA gel and Kupferstreckmetalltechnologie (technology of the extending copper) of accumulators.
SMA Solar Technology AG — the supplier of inverters.
Beta-motion — the vendor of lithium-ion cells. It is not specified in the list of partners on the main website.
1. Official page of the M5BAT project
2. Accumulator power plant of 5 MWh in Schwerin
3. Accumulator power plant of 2 MWh in Dresden
4. The regional regulating power plant Feldkhaym, 6,5 MWh
5. Hybrid LiIon-RedOx the battery in Braderup
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