It is quite possible that this results from the fact that vendors of these products according to numerous analytical reports see high interest in this segment and at a stage of growth try to ensure a financial support for investments into development, and also want "to skim off the cream" from those consumers who consider them as alternative traditional, usually more expensive, to solutions.
Along with it in the market we can observe emergence of new standards and protocols for the systems of automation, and also attempt of adaptation existing (for example, the DECT and Bluetooth) to this task. It is more and more central nodes – controllers declare a multiplatformennost and a multiprotokolnost in the characteristics. Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to ensure in practice real and convenient functioning "from a box" with all attendee at the market the equipment. So from a certain point of view development of the situation does not inspire optimism – the prices of the certified and licensed equipment remain high, and distribution of "unnamed" products restrains their doubtful consumer characteristics and compatibility. Usual "and it is possible to purchase everything in celestial for three rubles" here works already not so effectively.
However users who want and can do something by own hands, after all can find application for the abilities. The main thing, in this case, to derive pleasure from process, without forgetting to realize that "well, quickly and cheap" at the same time all the same it will not turn out, but it is possible to make anything. For an example we will pay attention to two moments. The opening remark concerns high-quality fine sensors (without binding) – often they cost decent money even "at them", not to mention absolutely extravagant prices in some domestic shops. The second question which it is worth answering, – how complete has to be system. One-two actuation mechanisms or the sensor can be and are imperceptible for the family budget, and to here provide complete control of the three-room apartment will already cost a pretty penny.
Not less important and to understand in what the purpose of all invention except how to occupy the head and hands consists. Often the opinion meets that "the smart house" has to work so that it will not be noticeable. In reality intellectual providing a comfortable situation is not so simple to provide the advertized functions of economy of energy resources or. Determination of algorithms of interaction of elements of system is very interesting challenge deserving the separate publication so we will not concern this subject here.
For a start it is worth trying to evaluate and consider what options from the point of view of other elements of system are. As we speak about DIY and decrease in costs, it is worth looking towards the same Z-Wave in exceptional cases. Yes, sensors and actuation mechanisms from the same Fibaro impress with the opportunities and the compact sizes, however their cost is rather big. So in this case Ethernet and Wi-Fi is better to be guided by more usual options of communications, for example. As an alternative and for simple data exchanges it is possible to use RS-485, a radio channel in the range of 433 MHz and 1-Wire. By the way, if at a repair stage you displayed the whole world and other loadings individual cables in an electroguard, it will allow to reduce significantly costs for actuation mechanisms of management of them.
In such conditions the microcomputer based on the x86 platform with the Linux operating system or even Windows will be the simplest choice for mastering for the controller. If to you work with the text console is usual and use of architecture, other than x86, does not frighten, then it is possible to stop also on popular Raspberry Pi. One more option – to add this function on a house router or the network drive which work constantly. By the way, between "to make balance most" and "to take ready" very thin and in programming it is shown most brightly. By and large, quite really to write own program controller from scratch though on the assembler, but whether it will be interesting – a big question. Especially as there is a set of projects including open source, for a solution of this task, for example openHAB, Home Assistant and MajorDoMo. At the same time openness of platforms practically excludes restrictions for implementation of required algorithms of work.
Here too it is worth mentioning need of a solution of questions of a reliable communication of the device with the Internet, remote access, safety, duplicative systems of sending notifications. The most widespread options of technologies will be work through cellular networks, use of the SMS directly or through external services and VPN here.
For sensors and actuation mechanisms there is a similar dilemma – to take ready or to collect independently. The truth here also other factors, including cost, the sizes, technical characteristics, design and others in addition participate. But the level of training of the user for work with electronics will be the most essential. In need of a network it is possible to find hundreds of ready examples and projects so a question only in requirements to implementation and experience of a solution of such tasks.
As examples of platforms it is worth remembering about numerous Arduino and their clones, and also the NodeMCU project and other solutions on the ESP8266 module. The last are interesting that they already have the built-in Wi-fi controller. If necessary to make something more compact or more available, it is possible to use and just chips of controllers from Atmel, Microchip and STMicroelectronics. As for sensors, here the choice is very big – from the elementary analog options to modern multifunction sensors with digital interfaces. For load control mechanical or solid-state relays, and also special schemes are traditionally used if the dimirovaniye is necessary. Let's note that here it is possible to implement also the unique solutions unavailable or very expensive in ready option. For example, the running track at illumination of steps of a ladder.
From the most noticeable minuses of independently manufactured devices in comparison with ready if to look at technical characteristics, it is possible to call often larger sizes, difficulties at implementation of long work from batteries (including control of their status), and also need of creation of firmwares and development of program interfaces.
Let's separately note the question of reliability of system operation which is directly concerning comfort of work with it and implementation of some critical functions including management of supply of electricity and water. Vendors of many commercial solutions note use in the products "special" electronic a component, but practice shows that at the correct implementation and with "normal" models of a problem arise seldom. It is more difficult to evaluate quality of the used software and except how to be guided by information from users there is nothing to offer.
After all elements for the first project are collected, communication channels are configured, basic algorithms of interaction are programmed, there can be a question in visual representation of a monitoring system and management. The most often used option here, perhaps, is the traditional Web interface. Some projects of controllers mentioned above have in addition branded utilities for mobile devices based on Android and iOS. Usually they give basic opportunities of management, can not maintain all variety of your devices, and also is rare when allow to change appearance of panels flexibly.
Of course, it is difficult to call the requirement of beautiful and convenient design obligatory for the considered solutions oriented to DIY and an available segment, but after all sometimes there is a wish to give to the development the effective and finished type. Especially as "kitchen" in this case is usually hidden from eyes. If you are not ready to write the proprietary application for a solution of this task, then it is possible to use third-party products, one of leaders among which is iRidium Mobile today. Let's note that it is a commercial product and its cost for the ultimate user with the driver demanded in this case makes 10 000 rubles that is expensive for installations of this kind, but will give it the professional and finished type. However there is an opportunity to get acquainted free of charge with all its opportunities thanks to licenses with limited validity period, and experience with system can be useful also in own business activity.
The program is interesting to our task that it has clients for Android, iOS, OS X and Windows, allows to create most flexibly design of control bars (including based on ready examples), demands the minimum training, allows to use JS for programming of the built-in algorithms, has the ready AV &Custom; Systems driver for interaction with devices under the TCP/IP protocol, and also a big set of additional modules for the different equipment, including work with multimedia.
Summarizing this material, once again we will repeat the main idea – it is possible to make all. The main question will be in the choice of the balance suitable you between "to order a ready solution" and "to make everything". At the same time it is possible to note in it several separate directions corresponding to elements of system – the controller, the software, algorithms of interaction, protocols and the environment of communications, sensors and actuation mechanisms, control interfaces. To you it is not necessary to exclude a possibility of existence of all necessary knowledge and experience for implementation of the project at one person, of course. However more real the situation when you can select the most interesting to you subjects for independent implementation is represented and take ready solutions for others. As for cost, it is adequate to evaluate costs of own time, including some "compensation" for interesting occupation, it is impossible. If to speak about the equipment, then the assessment only "on iron" is seldom exact. It is worth thinking over the budget in advance and to be guided by the gradual growth of scales of system.
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