In our blogs on Habré and Geektimes we write about exchange trade much — we sort algorithms of trade strategy and we tell about the existing technologies. However many people are frightened off by risk to lose the money at investments — especially if it is about savings.
In the modern financial market exist about effective methods of minimization of such risks up to their complete elimination — and this is not about bank deposits. For example, the individual investment account (IIA) and the structured products concern to them.
Accounts of IIS: Investments and tax benefits
Since January 1, 2015 in Russia earned a new financial instrument which allows to perform low-risk investments at the exchange and to receive tax benefits — it received the name of the individual investment account (IIA).
Actually, IIS is a special brokerage account into which it is possible to grant the sum to 400 thousand rubles which have to be on it not less than three years. By means of accounts of this kind it is possible to receive tax benefits of two types.
The first of them is a tax deduction in the amount of 13% of the sum deposited to account. The account of this kind suits people who are not going to be engaged in active investments, and just want to save the finance, having received from them some advantage.
It works so — if the person current 2015 entered (or still will deposit) to account, for example, those 400 thousand rubles, then will return him a tax deduction in the amount of 52 thousand rubles (13%) for this year. And it is possible to place money even to December, and in January, 2016 to receive a deduction.
At the same time, it is optional to make by means of the investment account any operations at the exchange — though nobody prohibits it to do. It is possible just to put money for the account and once to receive from them a deduction. If investments are performed nevertheless, then the right to a deduction remains — in our example, it will be possible to receive also 52 thousand deduction and what will manage to be earned by means of purchase and sale, for example, of stocks.
Parameters of accounts of IIS of the first type
Minus of accounts of this kind it is possible to call need of "freezing" of money for them for three years — if the investor receives a tax deduction in the first year, and then will withdraw money from the account, then payment should be returned.
At the same time, of course, it is possible to deposit money to account every year and to receive deductions from the "new" sums, but also these additional injections will also be frozen on the account until the end of the third year of its existence. If to assume what is entered every year on 400 thousand rubles, then in three years on the account will "be blocked" (conditionally, it is possible to use this money for investments all the same) 1,2 million rubles which can be removed without the need for return of a tax deduction only after this term. Such option, obviously, will suit not all.
The privilege of the second type is expected people who not just put money for the account, but also actively use it for investments into different financial instruments: bonds, stocks, currency and so on — the benefit that restrictions for what to invest in, do not exist.
In that case, if the profit on commission of trade operations in three years exceeds 100% of the sum which is initially deposited to account, then this money is exempted from need of payment of income tax — for comparison, during the work at the exchange by means of "normal" broker accounts income tax needs to be paid always.
Parameters of accounts of IIS of the second type
The important point is in what to decide on type of a desirable privilege — a tax deduction or remission of income tax — the owner of the individual investment account can not at once, and even at the end of the third year of existence of the account, having weighed everything pros and cons in the circumstances.
Low-risk option of investments by means of accounts of IIS is work with the bonds of a federal loan (BFL). The income on such bonds is guaranteed by the state (now profitability makes about 10%). Circumstances under which the state will not be able to fulfill such obligations is a default at which problems will arise also at a banking system of the country (with the corresponding effects for the population deposits).
Therefore the owner of IIS can expect the income from federal loan bond plus the same tax deduction in the amount of 13%. As a result the general profitability which is higher turns out, than it is possible to calculate in case of bank deposits.
Besides, there are also more difficult options of use of IIS which can offer financial institutions which have own broker and bank divisions. For example, it is possible to create the account of IIS, to receive a deduction in the amount of 13%, and the next two years this account will be equated to the normal deposit (with the corresponding percent), but it will be impossible to withdraw money before end of the third year of storage of means.
In more detail about IIS and options of use of this account it is possible to learn from our video:
For opening of the account of IIS it is necessary to fill in the request on the website of the selected broker — here a form on the website ITinvest.
The structured products: Protection of initial investments
One more tool which allows the investor to obtain a guarantee of security blanket of the initial money even at adverse succession of events in the market.
The structured product is a financial instrument which merges in itself(himself) different assets and has a number of key parameters:
- Level of protection of the capital (it can be different at the choice of the investor);
- validity period (half a year, year);
- basic asset;
- Participation in growth or falling of the prices;
- Threshold prices;
- Participation coefficient.
There are different types of the structured products which assume different degree of protection of the capital and participation of the investor in work with assets. That is there is opportunity how just to invest in the product which is already in advance created by analysts of investment company including different assets and independently flexibly to configure such combination.
For example, in ITinvest clients can work with three types of products with protection of the capital.
Notes with participation
In this case calculation goes for growth of a basic asset and volatility, and also the possibility of sharp falling of a basic asset is supposed. In this case the client can select security or partial blanket of the initial sum of investments and receive unlimited profitability from operations with assets.
The choice of several basic assets from which the structured product — for example will be created currency, stocks, futures or indexes is possible. As well as at any investments there is a credit risk here. Also in this case there is a probability of short-reception of profit as investments only into one of basic assets, but not in a peculiar basket from several financial instruments, can be more profitable at favorable combination of circumstances.
Notes with limited participation
Are characterized by the moderate growth of a basic asset and a possibility of its sharp falling. In general this tool is similar on previous except that potential profitability is limited here.
Let's consider use of a note with limited participation on an example. If the investor has 1 million rubles which he invested in currency pair dollar ruble in June, 2015 then the price made about 56 rubles for dollar. In this case, the price strike, for example, of 60 rubles for dollar would be set, and period of validity of a note would make 102 days.
As we remember, in the summer of 2015 the dollar rose against ruble (the diagram it is possible to look, for example, on the website banki.ru), but the profit of the investor would be limited at the cost of 60 rubles here.
Calculation on stabilization or decrease in rates in the market of tools with the fixed profitability and decrease in credit risks. In this case the investor receives security blanket of the initial enclosed sum and in advance famous fixed coupon income from the selected tools. At the moment profitability remain at the level of 10-12% per annum.
Everything is similar to use of a normal bank deposit. Also, as well as in bank, there is a credit risk — that is in this case, risk of non-execution by the company which issued bonds, obligations to their buyers. This risk can be implemented at deterioration in a financial status of the company and lead to partial or complete loss of means by the client.
In case of bank at it can withdraw the license, or it can be ruined, then the client will receive only the part of the attachments guaranteed by a deposit insurance system (if they exceeded 700 thousand rubles).
In detail about struktirovanny products and options of their use it is possible to learn from our video:
Investment accounts and the structured products are financial instruments which are already for a long time known and are applied around the world (analogs of the same IIS exist in the USA, Canada and Great Britain).
All this promotes including to the fact that in the West in work of the financial markets considerable participation is accepted by normal citizens whose main business is not speculation at the exchange. At the same time use of tools, available at the modern exchanges, allows also conditional teachers, doctors and office workers to save and increase the finance.
Gradually there are more and more tools allowing to deal without excess risk with the structure of stock market and to purchase skills of an assessment of different options for investments gradually appear also at Russians.
Other posts about exchange trade from ITinvest:
- Stock market: How the exchanges and why they are necessary are arranged?
- How to save finance: Vs banks of the Exchange
- Tools of stock market: Derivative tools
- Vs banks of the Exchange: where it is more profitable to buy currency
- Stock market and saving of finance: How to purchase gold ingots
- Tools of stock market: what is futures and as they work
- Tools of stock market: what is options and as they work
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