2 years, 6 months ago
Under the proud name "Elbrus" there was a series of supercomputers which was developed by the Soviet scientist Vsevolod Sergeyevich Burtsev (70-80th). These computers entered a number of innovations to the theory of computers, such as a superskalyarnost (processing more than one instruction for one clock period), implementation of the protected programming with hardware data types, parallel processing of several instructions. But their orientation to languages of the high level was the main feature of the Soviet supercomputers. The Soviet-American scientist Vladimir Mstislavovich Pentkovsky participating in development "Elbrus" created a high-level programming language Ale-76.
Except improvement of the sphere of the Soviet computers, the computer became base for creation of 64-bit universal microprocessors "Elbrus 4-C" and the next generation "Elbrus 8-C". They diluted the market of the American vendors of Intel, AMD and IBM. Local development and production of processors it was caused by requirement to find own solutions for the defense industry where use of domestic devices is more desirable.
We constantly face substitution of reality false beliefs which not only bring the mass of inconveniences to ordinary people, but also interfere with development of science.
In 1997 doctors from southwest Korea adjusted practice of ultrasonic inspection for detection of cancer of thyroid gland at early stages. News of a new technique quickly extended, and soon all doctors in the region began to offer similar services. As a result, campaign purchased national character, and the government initiated the program of ultrasonic diagnostics of different types of cancer. Hundreds of thousands of volunteers agreed to pass tests of everything for $30-50.
The number of patients with the diagnosed cancer of a thyroid gland considerably increased in the country: from 5 cases on 100000 people in 1999 to 70 on 100000 in 2011. At two thirds of patients the thyroid gland was deleted that resulted in need of use of lifelong drug treatment. And both options of succession of events assumed serious risks.
It would seem, so large-scale and expensive program in the field of public health care had to save a set of lives. But, alas. Now a cancer of a thyroid gland – the most common form of this disease diagnosed in South Korea, and the number of the people dying of it did not change at all — about 1 100 000. But even when some local doctors noticed it and in 2014 the Korean association of a thyroid gland, the professional organization of endocrinologists and surgeons voiced opinion that it would be worth stopping inspections, objected, having declared that availability of specialized ultrasonography and treatment – inalienable rights of the person.
In January, 2015 David Brukman, at that time the candidate for the doctor of politological sciences, the student of the Californian university in Berkeley, found something strange in research which it and his classmate Joshua Kalla was tried to be repeated. According to the data of experiment received by the graduate student of UCLA Michael Lakor and published in Science in December of last year, the gays propagandists working during the pre-election company directly with residents of the different Areas of California after short told about the equal rights of different types of defects during which they opened own sexual orientation, won an arrangement of voters on the matter.
Bukman and Calla found out that research took place with some "violations". First, the acquired information did not cause a particular interest in public as it usually happens to experiments. Moreover, Bukmana and the Calla was not succeeded even to achieve the results described by Lakor partly. Having addressed to the company with assistance of which Lakor conducted the research, they learned that analysis of this sort was not carried out. It seemed, experiment was not at all.
In May Brukman, the Calla and their familiar scientist Pyotr Aranov voiced the suspicions about insolvency of the report in 27 pages. Nine days later in Science there was an article with a denial which slightly puzzled scientific community and forced to redden those public figures which like to sport data on new opening without troubling itself critical reasonings.
The radio host Ira Glass was not an exception also. He mentioned research in one of releases of the popular program "This American Life". In the post which appeared a bit later on the page of the blog of transfer of Glass explained "We prepared a plot taking into account serious scientific data … which confirmed that propagandists really exerted impact … Our plot was based on information which at that time was actual. Obviously, the facts changed".
2 years, 6 months ago
Computers are inseparably linked with our life, they are used in various fields of activity and human life, expand opportunities, considerably simplify work. With their help people invent new technologies, try to obtain progress in science, learn space and make a set of useful, important discoveries. In the same way application of computer technologies influenced also art development. In particular — emergence of electronic music.
It agrees published in Marketing Science — the log of publishing house of Institute of research of operations and management sciences (INFORMS) — to results of research, the insignificant difference can play the defining role in the price upon purchase of products, forcing consumers to select less caloric useful goods instead of high-calorific.
In particular, consumers with the low level of the income among which cases of obesity occur most often sensitively react to similar scarcely noticeable depreciation of products, as a rule. And it is very important to undertake similar economic measures, they work by the principle of a peculiar "tax on fat". Such outputs were sounded by the experts on an extent of 6 years studying data of sales more than 1700 supermarkets of the USA.
Research under the name "Whether the Tax on Fat Will Work?" belongs to authorship of professors Romana Hang from Northwest university, Kanishka Mishra from Michigan university and Vishal Singh from Business school of Stern at the New York university.
At the heart of research – the peculiar price policy determining the milk cost at the USA where the relative prices on products of different fat content — integral, 2%, 1% and fat-free – vary depending on the area and from to what shops you go more often. In some shops identical prices of milk of all types of fat content are set; on counters of others the fat content is higher, the cost, and, respectively, whole milk the most expensive, and fat-free, on the contrary, the cheapest is higher.
The French consumers also call for toughening of responsibility for data leakage
The federal consumers union of France made to Valve the claim, having declared that Steam and terms of service of service violate a number of legitimate rights of citizens of the European Union, including the right to legal resale of the purchased software.
Members of UFC Que-Choisir existing for 64 years (further "Federal consumers union") insist that Valve is obliged to give to users of the Steam service an opportunity at desire to resell legally purchased digital games. Noting that in many online stores certain restrictions for resale of products are provided, the Federal consumers union claims that it is very difficult to understand why it is possible to resell physical disks with games, and prohibition works for digital games. Any judgment prohibiting to resell the purchased games on online flea markets was not made. Moreover, it is remembered, representatives of the European court unambiguously explained that it is allowed to resell the software which is an integral part of video game.
The federal consumers union appeals to a solution of the European court of 2012 concerning resale of the loaded software licensed by the Oracle company. The resolution says: "Does not matter whether the copy of the computer program was made by means of loading from the website of the owner or by means of the material carrier, for example, CD ROM or DVD".
Algorithms of polarization of light allowed to create serial sensors of depth with the permission by 1000 times exceeding indicators of their predecessors.
Researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) found out that polarization of light — the physical phenomenon which is the cornerstone of technology of creation of polarizing sunglasses and the majority 3D - movies — will allow to increase resolution of usual 3D devices - visualization by 1000 times.
Thanks to this technology in mobile phones will appear high-quality built-in 3D - cameras and it will be possible to do a photo, at once sending them for printing from the 3D-printer.
One of developers of new system Akhuta Kadambi, the graduate student of MIT Media Lab laboratory, noted: "Already today it is possible to reduce 3D - the camera to the sizes corresponding to parameters of mobile phones. But it affects sensitivity 3D - sensors that leads to very rough reproduction of geometrical forms. We use natural mechanisms of polarization. So thanks to polarizing filters even at operation of sensors of poor quality we receive results, on quality much the exceeding images of objects from the laser scanners used in mechanical engineering".
2 years, 6 months ago
Sergey Alekseevich Lebedev was the Soviet academician and the founder of ADP equipment in the USSR. He created the first in continental Europe computer with the program (MESM) stored in memory and was one of developers of the first digital electronic computers with dynamically changeable program of calculations. Under the direction of and personal participation of this outstanding scientist 18 computers were created, and 15 of them were produced in lots.
Lebedev stood at the origins of development and formation of domestic ADP equipment. Experience of its work is unique as it covers the period from creation of the first lamp computers executing hundreds and thousands of operations per second to high-speed supercomputers on large scale integrated circuits.
The innovation development of researchers of Technical University of Denmark (DTU) completely changed idea of technology of a laser printing, it is possible to work both with data of high resolution, and with color images of unprecedented quality and the microscopic sizes now.
Using similar technology, specialists of DTU Nanotech and DTU Fotonik managed to reproduce the color copy of Mona Lisa, less than a pixel of iPhone Retina display in size. The new laser technology allows to print images with the permission in improbable 127 000 DPI. For comparison, weekly and monthlies are, as a rule, issued on 300 DPI.
The special nano-structured surface — ranks of small columns where diameter of everyone — only 100 nanometers is necessary for printing of microscopic images. Then this structured surface is prokryvat by 20 nanometers layers of aluminum. By transfer from one nanocolumn on another the laser impulse in turn heats each of them then they melt and deformed. Processing temperature can reach 1500 °C, however, everything during several nanoseconds that prevents an overheat of other elements.
2 years, 7 months ago The analysis of corrosion resistance of different materials is carried out in supercritical solution of ammonia. At the left — a sapphire crystal prior to experiment. In the center — corrosion reaction to supercritical ammonium - sodium solution. As it became clear – the image on the right – under the influence of ammonium chloride carbide of silicon remains stable.
It is known that reactors for which creation, according to researchers, there are more suitable materials are involved in production of LEDs.
Now there were many new methods of receipt of nitride of the gallium (GaN) necessary for production of LEDs. One of the most perspective methods (ammonotermalny) assumes existence of the reactor filled with liquid ammonia. In fact, it is the same hydrothermal algorithm which is used at receipt of quartz in which instead of water — ammonia.
Nevertheless, high temperature in the ammonotermalny reactor in combination with pressure by 2500 times exceeding atmospheric and also the corrosion caused by supercritical solution do not strengthen structure of the camera of the reactor at all, and, so call into question into production efficiency of materials for LEDs. Trying to find a solution, the research associate of University Aalto the post-doctoral candidate Sami Suikonen, the research associate of Siddkh Pimputkar and group of researchers of University of California, Santa Barbara, headed by the Nobel Prize laureate on physics Syudzi Nakamura systematically analyzed reaction of 35 metals, 2 metalloids and 17 ceramic materials to three different supercritical liquid structures heated to 572 degrees Celsius.